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《货币的购买力》第五章第二节

时间:2017-12-04 14:26来源:未知 作者:一品梅 点击:
3 (a). Anything which facilitates intercourse tends to increase trade. Anything that interferes with intercourse tends to decrease trade. First of all, there are the mechanical facilities for transport. As Macaulay said, with the exception

3 (a). Anything which facilitates intercourse tends to increase trade. Anything that interferes with intercourse tends to decrease trade. First of all, there are the mechanical facilities for transport. As Macaulay said, with the exception of the alphabet and the printing press, no set of inventions has tended to alter civilization so much as those which abridge distance,—such as the railway, the steamship, the telephone, the telegraph, and that conveyer of information and advertisements, the newspaper. These all tend, therefore, to decrease prices.
3(a)任何促进性的东西往往会增加贸易。任何干扰性的行为都会减少交易。首先,有运输的机械设施。正如麦考利所说,除了字母表和印刷机之外,没有一套发明倾向于像远距离的那样改变文明,如铁路,轮船,电话,电报和传送带信息和广告,报纸。因此,这些都倾向于降低价格。

3 (b). Trade barriers are not only physical but legal. A tariff between countries has the same influence in decreasing trade as a chain of mountains. The freer the trade, the more of it there will be. In France, many communities have a local tariff (octroi) which tends to interfere with local trade. In the United States trade is free within the country itself, but between the United States and other countries there is a high protective tariff. The very fact of increasing facilities for transportation, lowering or removing physical barriers, has stimulated nations and communities to erect legal barriers in their place. Tariffs not only tend to decrease the frequency of exchanges, but to the extent that they prevent international or interlocal division of labor and make countries more alike as well as less productive, they also tend to decrease the amounts of goods which can be exchanged. The ultimate effect is thus to raise prices.
3(b)贸易壁垒不仅是物质的,而且是合法的。国家之间的关税在降低贸易量方面同样有影响。交易越自由,就越有可能。在法国,许多社区都有地方关税(octroi),这往往会干扰当地的贸易。在美国,贸易在国内本身是自由的,但是在美国和其他国家之间有很高的保护性关税。增加交通设施,降低或消除实际障碍的事实,已经促使国家和社区设置法律障碍。关税不仅会减少交流的频率,而且会阻碍国际间或地区间的分工,使国家更加相似,他们也倾向于减少可交换的货物数量。最终的结果是提高价格。

3 (c). The development of efficient monetary and banking systems tends to increase trade. There have been times in the history of the world when money was in so uncertain a state that people hesitated to make many trade contracts because of the lack of knowledge of what would be required of them when the contract should be fulfilled. In the same way, when people cannot depend on the good faith or stability of banks, they will hesitate to use deposits and checks.
3(c)有效的货币和银行体系的发展往往会增加贸易。世界上有一段时间,货币处于如此不确定的状态,人们因为缺乏合同应履行时所需要的知识而不知所措,因而不愿意签订许多贸易合同。同样,当人们不能依赖银行的诚信和稳定时,也会犹豫是否存款和支票。

3 (d). Confidence, not only in banks in particular, but in business in general, is truly said to be "the soul of trade." Without this confidence there cannot be a great volume of contracts. Anything that tends to increase this confidence tends to increase trade. In South America there are many places waiting to be developed simply because capitalists do not feel any security in contracts there. They are fearful that by hook or by crook the fruit of any investments they may make will be taken from them.
3(d)信心,不仅在银行尤其是在商业上,而且是真正的“商业的灵魂”。没有这个信心,就不可能有大量的合同。任何趋于增加这种信心的东西往往会增加贸易。在南美洲,有许多地方正在等待发展,因为资本家在那里没有感觉到任何合同的安全。他们担心的是,任何投资的结果都可能被他们取而代之。

We see, then, that prices will tend to fall through increase in trade, which may in turn be brought about by improved transportation, by increased freedom of trade, by improved monetary and banking systems, and by business confidence. Historically, during recent years, all of these causes have tended to grow in power, except freedom of trade. Tariff barriers, however, have only partly offset the removal of physical barriers. The net effect has been a progressive lowering of trade restrictions, and therefore the tendency, so far as this group of causes goes, has been for prices to fall.
那么,我们可以看到,通过贸易的增长,价格会下降,反过来又可能是交通改善,贸易自由度增加,货币和银行体系改善以及商业信心所带来的。从历史上看,近年来,除了贸易自由以外,所有这些原因都趋于增长。但是,关税壁垒只能部分抵消消除有形障碍。净效应是贸易限制的逐步降低,因此就这一系列原因而言,趋势是价格下跌。 (责任编辑:一品梅)
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