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时间:2017-11-27 14:25来源:未知 作者:一品梅 点击:
THUS far we have considered the level of prices as affected by the volume of trade, by the velocities of circulation of money and of deposits, and by the quantities of money and of deposits. These are the only influences which can directly a
THUS far we have considered the level of prices as affected by the volume of trade, by the velocities of circulation of money and of deposits, and by the quantities of money and of deposits. These are the only influences which can directly affect the level of prices. Any other influences on prices must act through these five. There are myriads of such influences (outside of the equation of exchange) that affect prices through these five. It is our purpose in this chapter to note the chief among them, excepting those that affect the volume of money (M); the latter will be examined in the two following chapters.
由于贸易额,货币和存款的流通速度,以及货币和存款的数量的影响,我们已经考虑了价格水平。这是直接影响价格水平的唯一影响。任何其他的价格影响必须通过这五个行为。这些影响(在交换方程之外)有无数的影响,通过这五个影响价格。在这一章中我们的目的是要注意其中的主要部分,除了那些影响货币量(M)的部分; 后面的章节将在后面的两章中进行介绍。

We shall first consider the outside influences that affect the volume of trade and, through it, the price level. The conditions which determine the extent of trade are numerous and technical. The most important may be classified as follows:

1. Conditions affecting producers.
(a) Geographical differences in natural resources.
(b) The division of labor.
(c) Knowledge of the technique of production.
(d) The accumulation of capital.

2.Conditions affecting consumers.
(a) The extent and variety of human wants. 3.Conditions connecting producers and consumers.
(b) Facilities for transportation.
(c) Relative freedom of trade.
(d) Character of monetary and banking systems.
(e) Business confidence.

1 (a). It is evident that if all localities were exactly alike in their natural resources and in their comparative costs of production little or no trade would be set up between them. It is equally true that the greater the difference in the costs of production of different articles in different localities, the more likely is there to be trade between them and the greater the amount of that trade. Primitive trade had its raison d'être in the fact that the regions of this earth are unlike in their products. The traders were travelers between distant countries. Changes in commercial geography still produce changes in the distribution and volume of trade. The exhaustion of gold and silver mines in Nevada and of lumber in Michigan have tended to reduce the volume of trade of these regions, both external and internal. Contrariwise, cattle raising in Texas, the production of coal in Pennsylvania, of oranges in Florida, and of apples in Oregon have increased the volume of trade for these communities respectively.

1 (b). Equally obvious is the influence of the division of labor. Division of labor is based in part on differences in comparative costs or efforts as between men,—corresponding to geographic differences as between countries. These two, combined, lead to local differentiation of labor, making, for example, the town of Sheffield famous for cutlery, Dresden for china, Venice for glass, Paterson for silks, and Pittsburg for steel.

1 (c). Besides local and personal differentiation, the state of knowledge of production will affect trade. The mines of Africa and Australia were left unworked for centuries by ignorant natives but were opened by white men possessing a knowledge of metallurgy. Vast coal fields in China await development, largely for lack of knowledge of how to extract and market the coal. Egypt awaits the advent of scientific agriculture, to usher in trade expansion. Nowadays, trade schools in Germany, England, and the United States are increasing and diffusing knowledge of productive technique.

1 (d). But knowledge, to be of use, must be applied; and its application usually requires the aid of capital. The greater and the more productive the stock or capital in any community, the more goods it can put into the currents of trade. A mill will make a town a center of trade. Docks, elevators, warehouses and railway terminals help to transform a harbor into a port of commerce.
1(d)但是,必须运用知识才能使用; 其应用通常需要资金的援助。任何社区的股票或资本越大,生产力越高,它可以把更多的商品投入到贸易中去。一家工厂将使一个城镇成为一个贸易中心。码头,电梯,仓库和铁路码头帮助把一个港口变成一个商业港口。

Since increase in trade tends to decrease the general level of prices, anything which tends to increase trade likewise tends to decrease the general level of prices. We conclude, therefore, that among the causes tending to decrease prices are increasing geographical or personal specialization, improved productive technique, and the accumulation of capital. The history of commerce shows that all these causes have been increasingly operative during a long period including the last century. Consequently, there has been a constant tendency, from these sources at least, for prices to fall.

2 (a). Turning to the consumers' side, it is evident that their wants change from time to time. This is true even of so-called natural wants, but more conspicuously true of acquired or artificial wants.

Wants are, as it were, the mainsprings of economic activity which in the last analysis keep the economic world in motion. The desire to have clothes as fine as the clothes of others, or finer, or different, leads to the multiplicity of silks, satins, laces, etc.; and the same principle applies to furniture, amusements, books, works of art, and every other means of gratification.
实际上,想要的是经济活动的主导地位,在最后的分析中保持了经济世界的运转。衣服要像别人的衣服一样好,或者更好,或者不同,导致丝绸,绸缎,花边等的多样性; 同样的原则适用于家具,娱乐,书籍,艺术品和其他任何满足的手段。

The increase of wants, by leading to an increase in trade, tends to lower the price level. Historically, during recent times through invention, education, and the emulation coming from increased contact in centers of population, there has been a great intensification and diversification of human wants and therefore increased trade. Consequently, there has been from these causes a tendency of prices to fall. 需求增加导致贸易增加,价格水平趋于下降。从历史上看,近年来通过发明,教育和人口中心接触的增多,人类的需求大大加强和多样化,从而增加了贸易。因此,这些原因导致价格下跌的趋势。 (责任编辑:一品梅)
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