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《货币的购买力》第五章第一节

时间:2017-11-27 14:25来源:未知 作者:一品梅 点击:
THUS far we have considered the level of prices as affected by the volume of trade, by the velocities of circulation of money and of deposits, and by the quantities of money and of deposits. These are the only influences which can directly a
THUS far we have considered the level of prices as affected by the volume of trade, by the velocities of circulation of money and of deposits, and by the quantities of money and of deposits. These are the only influences which can directly affect the level of prices. Any other influences on prices must act through these five. There are myriads of such influences (outside of the equation of exchange) that affect prices through these five. It is our purpose in this chapter to note the chief among them, excepting those that affect the volume of money (M); the latter will be examined in the two following chapters.
由于贸易额,货币和存款的流通速度,以及货币和存款的数量的影响,我们已经考虑了价格水平。这是直接影响价格水平的唯一影响。任何其他的价格影响必须通过这五个行为。这些影响(在交换方程之外)有无数的影响,通过这五个影响价格。在这一章中我们的目的是要注意其中的主要部分,除了那些影响货币量(M)的部分; 后面的章节将在后面的两章中进行介绍。

We shall first consider the outside influences that affect the volume of trade and, through it, the price level. The conditions which determine the extent of trade are numerous and technical. The most important may be classified as follows:
我们首先要考虑影响贸易量的外部影响因素,并通过它来考虑价格水平。决定贸易程度的条件是众多和技术性的。最重要的可以分类如下:

1. Conditions affecting producers.
(a) Geographical differences in natural resources.
(b) The division of labor.
(c) Knowledge of the technique of production.
(d) The accumulation of capital.
1.影响生产者的条件。
(a)自然资源的地理差异。
(b)分工。
(c)了解生产技术。
(d)资本积累。


2.Conditions affecting consumers.
(a) The extent and variety of human wants. 3.Conditions connecting producers and consumers.
(b) Facilities for transportation.
(c) Relative freedom of trade.
(d) Character of monetary and banking systems.
(e) Business confidence.
2.影响消费者的条件。
(a)人类需求的程度和多样性。连接生产者和消费者的条件。
(b)运输设施。
(c)相对的贸易自由。
(d)货币和银行系统的特点。
(e)商业信心。

1 (a). It is evident that if all localities were exactly alike in their natural resources and in their comparative costs of production little or no trade would be set up between them. It is equally true that the greater the difference in the costs of production of different articles in different localities, the more likely is there to be trade between them and the greater the amount of that trade. Primitive trade had its raison d'être in the fact that the regions of this earth are unlike in their products. The traders were travelers between distant countries. Changes in commercial geography still produce changes in the distribution and volume of trade. The exhaustion of gold and silver mines in Nevada and of lumber in Michigan have tended to reduce the volume of trade of these regions, both external and internal. Contrariwise, cattle raising in Texas, the production of coal in Pennsylvania, of oranges in Florida, and of apples in Oregon have increased the volume of trade for these communities respectively.
1(a)很明显,如果所有地方的自然资源完全一样,而且它们的生产比较成本很小,或者它们之间不会有贸易。同样,不同地区的不同物品生产成本差异越大,它们之间的贸易就越有可能,贸易量也就越大。原始贸易有其存在的理由是地球上的地区与其产品不同。贸易商是遥远国家之间的旅行者。商业地理的变化仍然会导致贸易的分布和交易量的变化。内华达州的黄金和白银矿山以及密歇根州的木材枯竭,往往会减少这些地区的内外贸易量。

1 (b). Equally obvious is the influence of the division of labor. Division of labor is based in part on differences in comparative costs or efforts as between men,—corresponding to geographic differences as between countries. These two, combined, lead to local differentiation of labor, making, for example, the town of Sheffield famous for cutlery, Dresden for china, Venice for glass, Paterson for silks, and Pittsburg for steel.
1(b)分工的影响同样显而易见。劳动分工的部分基础是比较成本差异或男性之间的努力,这与国家之间的地理差异相对应。这两者相结合,导致了劳动力的地方分化,例如谢菲尔德以刀具闻名,德累斯顿为中国,威尼斯为玻璃,帕特森为丝绸,皮茨堡为钢铁。

1 (c). Besides local and personal differentiation, the state of knowledge of production will affect trade. The mines of Africa and Australia were left unworked for centuries by ignorant natives but were opened by white men possessing a knowledge of metallurgy. Vast coal fields in China await development, largely for lack of knowledge of how to extract and market the coal. Egypt awaits the advent of scientific agriculture, to usher in trade expansion. Nowadays, trade schools in Germany, England, and the United States are increasing and diffusing knowledge of productive technique.
1(c)除了地方和个人的差异,生产知识的状态也会影响贸易。几个世纪以来,非洲和澳大利亚的地雷都被无知的土着人所遗留下来,却被拥有冶金知识的白人们所打开。中国的广阔煤田正在等待发展,主要原因是缺乏如何提炼和销售煤炭的知识。埃及正在等待科学农业的到来,迎来贸易扩张。现在德国,英国和美国的贸易学校正在增加和扩大生产技术知识。

1 (d). But knowledge, to be of use, must be applied; and its application usually requires the aid of capital. The greater and the more productive the stock or capital in any community, the more goods it can put into the currents of trade. A mill will make a town a center of trade. Docks, elevators, warehouses and railway terminals help to transform a harbor into a port of commerce.
1(d)但是,必须运用知识才能使用; 其应用通常需要资金的援助。任何社区的股票或资本越大,生产力越高,它可以把更多的商品投入到贸易中去。一家工厂将使一个城镇成为一个贸易中心。码头,电梯,仓库和铁路码头帮助把一个港口变成一个商业港口。

Since increase in trade tends to decrease the general level of prices, anything which tends to increase trade likewise tends to decrease the general level of prices. We conclude, therefore, that among the causes tending to decrease prices are increasing geographical or personal specialization, improved productive technique, and the accumulation of capital. The history of commerce shows that all these causes have been increasingly operative during a long period including the last century. Consequently, there has been a constant tendency, from these sources at least, for prices to fall.
由于贸易增长趋于降低一般的价格水平,任何趋向于增加贸易的东西同样倾向于降低一般的价格水平。因此,我们得出结论,价格趋于下降的原因是地域或个人专业化程度的提高,生产技术的提高以及资本的积累。商业史表明,在上个世纪的很长一段时间里,所有这些原因已经越来越多地起作用了。因此,从这些来源至少,价格一直在下降。

2 (a). Turning to the consumers' side, it is evident that their wants change from time to time. This is true even of so-called natural wants, but more conspicuously true of acquired or artificial wants.
2(a)谈到消费者方面,显然他们的需求会不时变化。即使是所谓的自然要求也是如此,但对后天或人为的要求更为明显。

Wants are, as it were, the mainsprings of economic activity which in the last analysis keep the economic world in motion. The desire to have clothes as fine as the clothes of others, or finer, or different, leads to the multiplicity of silks, satins, laces, etc.; and the same principle applies to furniture, amusements, books, works of art, and every other means of gratification.
实际上,想要的是经济活动的主导地位,在最后的分析中保持了经济世界的运转。衣服要像别人的衣服一样好,或者更好,或者不同,导致丝绸,绸缎,花边等的多样性; 同样的原则适用于家具,娱乐,书籍,艺术品和其他任何满足的手段。

The increase of wants, by leading to an increase in trade, tends to lower the price level. Historically, during recent times through invention, education, and the emulation coming from increased contact in centers of population, there has been a great intensification and diversification of human wants and therefore increased trade. Consequently, there has been from these causes a tendency of prices to fall. 需求增加导致贸易增加,价格水平趋于下降。从历史上看,近年来通过发明,教育和人口中心接触的增多,人类的需求大大加强和多样化,从而增加了贸易。因此,这些原因导致价格下跌的趋势。 (责任编辑:一品梅)
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